Find resources to help manage diabetes.
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the pancreas no longer produces insulin. The body needs insulin to use sugar for energy. Approximately 10 per cent of people with diabetes have type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body does not effectively use the insulin that is produced. 90 per cent of people with diabetes have type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. It affects approximately 3.5 per cent of all pregnancies and involves an increased risk of developing diabetes for both mother and child.
Is diabetes serious?
If left untreated or improperly managed, diabetes can result in a variety of complications, including:
- Heart disease
- Kidney disease
- Eye disease
- Problems with erection (impotence)
- Nerve damage
The first step in avoiding the onset of these complications is recognizing the risk factors, as well as signs and symptoms that may indicate you have diabetes. Careful management of diabetes, for those living with it, can delay or even prevent complications.
What are the risks?
- Age 40 or older
- A member of a high-risk ethnic group (Aboriginal, Hispanic, Asian, South Asian or African descent)
- Overweight (especially if you carry most of your weight around your middle)
- A parent, brother or sister with diabetes
- Health complications that are associated with diabetes (see above under "Is diabetes serious?")
- Given birth to a baby that weighed more than four kilograms (nine pounds) at birth
- Had gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy)
- Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol or other fats in the blood
Having been diagnosed with any of the following:
- Polycystic ovary syndrome
- Acanthosis nigricans (darkened patches of skin)
Signs and symptoms
- Unusual thirst
- Frequent urination
- Weight change (gain or loss)
- Extreme fatigue or lack of energy
- Blurred vision
- Frequent or recurring infections
- Cuts and bruises that are slow to heal
- Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
- Trouble getting or maintaining an erection
It is important to recognize, however, that many people who have type 2 diabetes may display no symptoms.
Resources for people with diabetes
- On the Road to Diabetes Health (English)
On the Road to Diabetes Health is a diabetes education guide written by Fraser Health diabetes educators.
- On the Road to Diabetes Health (Farsi)
On the Road to Diabetes Health is a diabetes education guide written by Fraser Health diabetes educators and translated into Farsi.
- On the Road to Diabetes Health (Chinese Simplified)
On the Road to Diabetes Health is a diabetes education guide written by Fraser Health diabetes educators and translated into Chinese Simplified.
- On the Road to Diabetes Health (Punjabi)
On the Road to Diabetes Health is a diabetes education guide written by Fraser Health diabetes educators and translated into Punjabi.
On the Road to Diabetes Health: 7 Day Meal Plan - 45-gram carbohydrate (English)
Suggested weekly meal plan and grocery shopping list to maintain 45-gram carbohydrate meals.
Fraser Health patient education resources
- Canadian Diabetes Association
Useful resource for information on how to manage your diabetes.
- Diabetes: Fact sheets
Diabetes information is available in easy-to-read fact sheets, organized into helpful topics. Download fact sheets in the language you prefer.
- Live well with diabetes
Educational initiative of the B.C. Endocrine Research Foundation that is intended to provide information on all aspects of diabetes self-management.
- National Aboriginal Diabetes Association
National Aboriginal Diabetes Association is a not-for-profit members-led organization established in 1995 as a result of the rising rates of diabetes in Aboriginal communities.
Resources for children and youth
- Children and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia: BCCH Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit
The Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit is a diagnostic, treatment and education centre for children and families affected with diabetes and other endocrine conditions.
- HealthLink BC: Diabetes in children: Preparing a care plan for school
A diabetes care plan will help your child's teachers and other school staff know when and how to manage your child's diabetes.
- Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
For over 40 years, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation has been a global leader in the search for an end to type 1 diabetes, through both research funding and advocacy.
- BC Children's Hospital - diabetes
Diabetes handouts for families.